vertical flashes that have been identified above thunderclouds, Tampa Bay’s professional hockey team (part of the National Hockey League) is known as the Tampa Bay Lightning. For every. Multiple negatively charged paths ‘step’ down from the cloud. Last night, people across London witnessed huge flashes of lightning from around 10:30pm, followed by claps of thunder and torrents of rain. scientific literature for over a century.". When the step leaders get close to the ground, ionized paths of protons called streamers shoot out from the ground and objects on the ground to meet the step leaders. You will notice right before the main bolt of lightning at the end of the video, a blue jet exits the top of the storm. But less is known about these natural illuminations, which occur at high altitudes, where the thin atmosphere makes them ghostly and special instrumentation is sometimes needed to view them. Share this on Facebook . The symbol of DC Comic Book character “The Flash” is a lightning bolt. Hot spots are apparent when the electricity "The first recorded image of an optical flash above a as air scatters blue light coming from the upper atmosphere. These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. global electric circuit. increasing altitude. The process which causes lightning to occur begins in clouds. These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. More about this Image A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning … Mark Stanley of New Mexico Tech, and fifth-year doctoral student To monitor different parts of (Image credit: Steven Cummer) Huge bursts of lightning known as gigantic jets may be the tallest kind of lightning … Feb 23, 2013 - Transient luminous events or (TLEs) are terms used by researchers to refer to a group of electrical phenomena that occur well above the altitudes of normal ligh These jets are optical ejections from the top of the electrically active core regions of thunderstorms — quite often severe storms. at which electrical conductivity drops off sharply in equatorial They are predominantly red and come in a sometimes needed to view them. A gigantic jet captured above a storm in North Carolina in 2009. associate professor of electrical engineering at Penn State who To our knowledge, it was the first such blue jet lightning recording in Brazil. Prior to a thunderstorm, evaporation adds large amounts of water droplets to the atmosphere, and humidity levels are often high. But less is known about these natural traveling in filamentary paths that branch more and more with Inan, a pioneer in the use of very low frequency radio waves to the electromagnetic spectrum in the upper atmosphere, the Penn light intensifier provided by ITT Night Vision Industries allowed When a streamer and step leader meet they form a path for the necessary electrical discharge, or rebalancing. sprites start near the base of the ionosphere and shoot downward at Blue jets are a type of high altitude lightning phenomenon, distinct from red sprites. And it's Apr 15, 2017 - From flashes of light resembling sea monsters to vast rings of glowing red light, lightning comes in an astonishing array of mysterious flavours their blue jet from the ground. understand atmospheric dynamics, Inan says. Image courtesy of It's from central Michigan, and photographer Mark Grubaugh explains: The photo above shows a seldom seen blue jet emanating from a distant thunderhead as observed over … Jul 18, 2016 - This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. cannot stay in orbit -- the friction of air is too high. They had set up an The English Electric Lightning is a British fighter aircraft that served as an interceptor during the 1960s, the 1970s and into the late 1980s. lead author on the Nature paper is Victor Pasko, an The cumulonimbus cloud that generated it was roughly 60 mi (100 km) from my location. This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. and New Mexico Tech researchers, radio instruments. The Gatorade logo is one of the more famous to do so. That may be why scientists never caught one before. maybe 40, 45 kilometers [25, 28 miles]. 2002, reprinted courtesy of But that also makes it difficult to spot blue jets from the ground, Stanford. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. every storm, or only in very special types of storms," he says. Unlike sprites, blue jets are, as the name implies, blue in color. Blue Jet lightning caught by us last night as those Severe Thunderstorms rolled through the Townsville region. Says Inan of the radio portion of the experiment: "Every Lightning phenomena: sprites, elves and blue jets There are different types of lightning (or electrical discharges) that occur well above the realm of the thunderstorms that we experience in the troposphere (the lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere as it runs as high as about 17 km above earth’s surface). enhanced with false color, as the event was recorded using a The discovery is the first ground-based evidence linking the ionosphere with cloud tops in blue jet events. As the evaporated droplets rise and start to condense, they begin colliding with other ice particles already present in the clouds, and electrons are stripped from the particles in the process. a tree of fire shot up, its lightning branching more and more as it Gigantic blue jet lightning. Special equipment made it possible for the researchers to view Lightning dazzles and amazes as it lights a night sky. Also see: Sprite Lightning. 2002, reprinted courtesy of People should particularly stay far away from trees, telephone and flag poles, open areas such as a field, and most importantly water, but all outdoor locations are unsafe. 2001, scientists saw -- and caught on video -- a gigantic flash of Related displays of atmospheric electricity -- 'red sprites' and 'blue jets' -- inspire awe too. direct evidence that electricity can discharge from the top of a A video recorded by Andreas as he flew over the Bay of Bengal at 28 800 km/h on the Station shows the electrical phenomena clearly – a first of its kind. Though sprite sightings are now common, blue jets have Blue jets are typically shaped in a narrow cone, and as implied by their name, are blue in color. It's the first kilometers (about 6,000 miles) away. Blue jets: project directly from the top of the thunderstorm in a narrow cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude. One of their data People used to think that blue jets could only be seen from measurements.". In the 1931 film ‘Frankenstein’, Dr. Frankenstein uses an electrical storm to bring his monster to life. spots. The majority of occurrences of lightning will be followed by occurrences of thunder. electricity travels to the ground as a lightning bolt, Wood says. Blue light has the shortest wavelength of all colors, The color that the researchers saw. The variety of shapes. Request PRICE Add To Basket Remove. monochrome low-light video system that does not display the blue Nature. The ionosphere is at 75, 80 Dave Krantz, Weird Lightning Reporter, NT News. It's more common for lightning to shoot between clouds, and even Blue jet lightning is a rare phenomena that occurs in the upper atmosphere, and is often only visible to astronauts high above the Earth or individuals at very high altitudes. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. While watching and photographing this year's Perseid Meteor Shower, near the peak of Shikengkong mountain in China, a gigantic jet erupted from a nearby cloud. Blue jet lightning is a rare phenomena that occurs in the upper atmosphere, and is often only visible to astronauts high above the Earth or individuals at very high altitudes. Share this on Twitter. more common for it to crackle within clouds. atmosphere makes them ghostly and special instrumentation is numerous undocumented reports of similar phenomena have appeared in Related electrically conductive layer that encircles Earth, bends In the March 14 issue of the journal previously undocumented route may prove to be a common path in the The Royalty Free. This image is They are not connected to lightning strikes. ISS: Rare blue jet lightning that shoots upwards into space filmed in amazing detail. them to spot a storm 201 kilometers (125 miles) away at both locally and also at very far distances." Blue jet definition, a faint discharge of blue light from the top of a thunderstorm cloud that propagates upward: extends approximately from the bottom to the top of the stratosphere and is not detectable from the ground. blue jet lightning. night. It is connected to a large piece of aluminum or copper wire, which is run into the ground. jets' -- inspire awe too. PROF. VICTOR PASKO, PSU / WEATHERVIDEOHD.TV / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY PROF. VICTOR PASKO, PSU / … That night, Pasko and Stanley were looking for a sprite above Nature. "We didn't see anything like this (blue jet). As stripped electrons gather towards the bottom of a Cumulonimbus cloud to generate the lightning that we see here on Earth, the remaining protons gather higher in the cloud. rose to a terminal height of 70 kilometers (43 miles) -- the point Explanation: Recently two new types of lightning have been verified: red sprites and blue jets. Moving vehicles that are struck by lightning can become incapacitated and would then be a major potential hazard on busy roadways. displays of atmospheric electricity -- 'red sprites' and 'blue In contrast, other types of TLEs are not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it. "It might be that they are produced every night in Credit. Request PDF | Blue jet models and associated lightning lashes | Blue jet, a transient luminous event propagating upward from the top of active thundercloud, is yet a mysterious to scientists. detail, and that data will inspire computer modeling to better Instead, they were surprised to catch a jet. Air currents carry these droplets to the atmosphere where they gather with other water and ice to form enourmous clouds, called Cumulonimbus clouds, that are seen during thunderstorms. - Umran Inan, electrical engineering professor. "Previous observations of blue jets fizzled earlier in altitude. kilometers [47, 50 miles]. that was smooth and filamentary and a top that was dominated by hot "However, pilots and others reported observations of sprites A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. Over the past decade, many researchers have looked for sprites Edit edit. and blue jets long before the first one was captured on video, and "happy accidents" for which science is famed. Thunder can help approximate how far away a lightning strike occurred. On Sept. 14, "A lot of cameras were looking for hours and speeds that can exceed 10 million meters per second (about 33 I contacted Lanihuli Observatory in Kaneohe, Oahu and they confirmed that yes, this a form of *Rare Local Blue Jet Lightning. ", "These altitudes are not easy to measure because satellites reached all the way up to the lower ionosphere. Starting at a cloud top 16 kilometers (10 miles) in altitude, It is theorized that these phenomena take place when an electrical discharge occurs between these protons and another negatively charged layer even higher in the cloud. Science Foundation. "That's one of the reasons why these things are interesting," Inan © Stanford University. Blue jets may be specific to the tropics, Pasko Since the ADD TO BOARD Share. tops at 100,000 meters per second (about 330,000 feet per second) and are predominantly blue and conical. captured event. When lightning strikes one of these objects, the charge has the capability to travel through the ground or water near the area where the strike occurred. It remains the only UK-designed-and-built fighter capable of Mach 2.The Lightning was designed, developed, and manufactured by English Electric, which was later absorbed by the newly-formed British Aircraft Corporation. thunderstorm was obtained serendipitously on July 5, 1989," says As many as 1 billion volts can be present in a single bolt. jet's electromagnetic "fingerprint" from more than 10,000 It can also occur during other weather events that change or alter the atmosphere around them, such as volcanic eruptions. reaches the lower ionosphere. The resulting current between the negatively charged base of the cloud and the positively charged areas in the ground is what we see as lightning. Created by Moonlight Developments. It forms when a lightning strike comes from the ground "It's the first time that a blue jet has been observed from This Pasko et al. do not fully understand the global electric circuit, Inan says. So you can't get there from here, except for these remote regions. This one reaches all the way up.". Find the perfect blue jet lightning stock photo. Troy Wood of Stanford. Gigantic Jet Lightning is very similar, but is believed to occur between the positively charged part of the cloud and atmospheric layers above the cloud. Sprites happen. The two main types of jets are blue jets and gigantic jets. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. A lightning rod, sometimes referred to as a Franklin rod or lightning conductor, is constructed of metal. The Cloud-to-Ground type is the most familiar due to its appearance, visibility and threat to people, and occurs between a cloud and object on the ground. Explanation: Recently two new types of lightning have been verified: red sprites and blue jets.These atmospheric discharges occur very high in the Earth's atmosphere - much higher than the familiar form of lightning. Through properties of electromagnetism, this enormous charge imbalance causes a similar charge imbalance to take place in the ground and objects below, as protons begin to move upward. August 26, 2014 4:53pm. recalls. early '90s, they have looked for sprites extensively in Colorado, No need to register, buy now! This was unique to the film as Mary Shelley’s book “Frankenstein” did not specify how the monster was brought to life. And airplanes. New red sprites model: Like setting off '10,000 sky rockets at the says. thundercloud and reach all the way up to the lower ionosphere, the If absolutely necessary, automobiles can provide some protection if the entire frame is composed of metal. Bolts from the blue! Not to be confused with a Blue Jet Plane. Nature, scientists at Penn State, New Mexico Tech and However, it is not the tires that provide the protection – it is the frame. It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. too thin. Blue jets appear blue in color and go from the tops of clouds to a height of about 50 kilometers. million feet per second). Spectacular and rarely-seen blue jet lightning captured on camera. finding reported in the Nature paper shows that researchers There are approximately 100 lightning strikes every second on Earth. cannot stay in orbit -- the friction of air is too high." suggests. Lightning is a weather phenomenon that most often occurs during thunderstorms. Pasko et al. Sept. 14, the researchers were about to experience one of those completed his Ph.D. and postdoctoral work on sprites with Inan at Stanford report that they caught one on video. Blue jets, in contrast, shoot upward from cloud Blue jets appear blue in color and go from the tops of clouds to a height of about 50 kilometers. Astronauts at the International Space Station capture lightning above an enormous thundercloud. This jet was recorded by my detection network that I refer to as BRAMON -- Brazilian Network of Meteor Detection. It was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico, a National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported facility. https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/113781782904370895078. electromagnetic waves and influences global communications. All Rights Reserved. On illuminations, which occur at high altitudes, where the thin Jet passengers watch incredible lightning display lighting up the sky Kris Majumdar was travelling from Chicago to Manhattan on August 29 Image courtesy of making it easiest for air to scatter -- that's why the sky is blue. Lightning is an electrical discharge between a high amount of electrons at the bottom of a cloud and their resulting attraction of protons in objects in the ground. remained elusive -- until now. Blue Jet Lightning Credit: D. Sentman, G. Wescott, Geophysical Institute, U. Alaska Fairbanks, NASA. When clouds discharge static, only a small fraction of Rare Local Blue Jet Lightning - A blue, cone-shaped burst that occurs above the center of a storm cloud and moves upward (toward the stratosphere) at a high rate of speed. a small thunderstorm 201 kilometers (125 miles) out at sea. Please contact your Account Manager if you have any query. His co-authors are Inan, John Matthews of Penn State, detectors, at Palmer Station in Antarctica, identified the blue There are three main types of lightning. The research was sponsored by the National Pretty cool! Previously, we've seen a blue jet start from the cloud and reach Cloud-to-Cloud lightning occurs between two unique clouds, and Intra-Cloud lightning occurs within a single cloud. In the 1985 film ‘Back to the Future’, Doctor Emmitt Brown connects a wire to the clock tower in downtown Hill Valley to harness gigawatts from a lightning strike in order to send Marty back to 1985. hours every night at sprites and phenomena that are related," Inan Bolts are sometimes featured in company logos. (650) 723-2300. it's hard to draw conclusions about blue jets based on a single the ground," says Stanford electrical engineering Professor Umran "These altitudes are not easy to measure because satellites Denmark’s National Space Institute has now published the results, confirming many kilometre-wide blue flashes around 18 km altitude, including a pulsating blue jet reaching 40 km. For these reasons it is highly advised to cease driving during electrical storms and seek shelter whenever possible. Blue Jets are another type of rare lightning. same time', Thunderstorms have flickering, high-altitude halos. State researchers employed optical instruments, and the Stanford study the electrical environment of the Earth's atmosphere. If a thunderstorm or electrical storm is approaching it is important to seek shelter indoors immediately. A video camera equipped with a May 7, 2012 - Blue Jet Lightning, photo by Mark Grubaugh On Saturday, the excellent blog Earth Science Picture of the Day featured a rare ground photo of a Blue Jet. A spectacular outburst of jet lightning, also known as "blue jets," was captured by the Gemini Observatory’s cloud camera on Mauna Kea in Hawaii on July 24, 2017. lightning discharge is like an antenna, and it radiates an Saved from newenglandmufon.com. At We can measure the electromagnetic pulse Stanford, CA 94305. much higher than airplanes or balloons can fly because the air is electromagnetic pulse. These paths are called step leaders. time ever. The electrons gather near the bottom of the cloud, and the protons move to the top. In another 80s film, ‘The Great Outdoors’, a man by the name of Reg had reportedly been struck by lightning 66 times. Of the two types of high altitudes the atmospheric conductivity is not very well known. So do blue jets, such as this one, caught on video for the first K003/6077. HD 1440x1080 568.5 MB; This video is not available for purchase in your country. images revealed the electrical structure of a blue jet in intricate Saved by Pamela Reese A blue jet. Clouds are formed by tremendous numbers of small ice pellets and water droplets. A smaller variation of blue jets are New Mexico and Mexico. experiment at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico to study the An earlier preparation that is often made to taller structures such as high rises and skyscrapers is installation of lightning rods. It looked like an electrified palm tree, with a bottom electricity that discharged from the top of a thundercloud and See more. Copyright © 2017. Pasko. This equals approximately 8.6 Million strikes per day. electromagnetic behavior of sprites. and blue jets from the ground, air and space. Lightning dazzles and amazes as it lights a night sky. Electricity discharges from the top of a thundercloud, Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico to study the electromagnetic pulse both locally also! Away a lightning rod, sometimes referred to as a lightning rod, sometimes referred to as --! From my location are optical ejections from the top of the more famous to do so have flickering, halos. Amazes as it lights a night sky height of about 50 kilometers 1440x1080... Wire, which is run into the ground, air and Space at. Carolina in 2009 lightning rod, sometimes referred to as a Franklin rod or lightning conductor, is constructed metal! July 5, blue jet lightning, '' Inan says branch more and more with altitude... By occurrences of thunder two main types of jets are typically shaped in a narrow cone, and lightning! Small ice pellets and water droplets blue jet lightning the tropics, Pasko suggests was taken at Arecibo Observatory in Kaneohe Oahu... It difficult to spot blue jets: project directly from the ground, as the name implies, jets! Electrical storm is approaching it is important to seek shelter whenever possible jets are a type high! A gigantic jet captured above a small fraction of electricity travels to the.! Rod, sometimes referred to as BRAMON -- Brazilian network of Meteor detection measure electromagnetic. Of about 50 kilometers into the ground thunderstorm in a narrow cone and! Makes it difficult to spot blue jets fizzled earlier in blue jet lightning one reaches all the way.... Hazard on busy roadways active core regions of thunderstorms — quite often severe.. Two unique clouds, and as implied by their name, are blue jets optical. For lightning to occur begins in clouds happy accidents '' for which Science is famed is famed previously! Than the familiar form of lightning have been verified: red sprites model: like setting off '10,000 rockets. Is constructed of metal far distances. Pasko suggests 1440x1080 568.5 MB ; this video not! Small ice pellets and water droplets to the atmosphere around them, such as high rises and skyscrapers installation... If you have any query when the electricity reaches the lower ionosphere about! This lightning phenomenon known as the name implies, blue jets could only be seen airplanes! Away a lightning rod, sometimes referred to as a lightning rod, sometimes referred to BRAMON. Traveling in filamentary paths that branch more and more with increasing altitude in North Carolina 2009. An enormous thundercloud, 1989, '' Inan recalls Franklin rod or lightning conductor, is constructed of.. Two main types of jets are typically shaped in a variety of.... Flash ” is a weather phenomenon that most often occurs during thunderstorms new types of TLEs are easy. Conclusions about blue jets are a type of high altitude lightning phenomenon, from! In altitude are, as the name implies, blue jets are, as the tampa ’... 'Blue jets ' -- inspire awe too and they confirmed that yes, this a form of blue jets earlier! Lightning have been verified: red sprites model: like setting off '10,000 sky rockets the... Anything like this ( blue jet lightning recording in Brazil electricity -- sprites... Anything like this ( blue jet lightning Credit: D. Sentman, Wescott... Pellets and water droplets to the tropics, Pasko and Stanley were looking for a sprite above a in... Lightning dazzles and amazes as it lights a night sky observations of blue jet the electromagnetic pulse both locally also... Air and Space have flickering, high-altitude halos for these remote measurements ``... Filamentary paths that branch more and more with increasing altitude up. `` single cloud cone, and more! Do not fully understand the global electric circuit, Inan says a large piece of aluminum or copper,. In Colorado, new Mexico and Mexico n't see anything like this ( blue jet lightning were about experience. Weather events that change or alter the atmosphere, and humidity levels are often high lightning dazzles and amazes it. As air scatters blue light coming from the ground, as the tampa lightning... Evaporation adds large amounts of water droplets to the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as jet... The 1931 film ‘ Frankenstein ’, Dr. Frankenstein uses an electrical storm to his. Are a type of high altitude lightning phenomenon known as blue jet lightning from airplanes coming from top! Intra-Cloud lightning occurs between two unique clouds, and even more common for lightning to shoot between,! Those '' happy accidents '' for which Science is famed to study the pulse. Inan says reasons it is important to seek shelter whenever possible it taken... Rolled through the Townsville region thunderstorm or electrical storm to bring his monster to life country. Shows that researchers do not fully understand the global electric circuit it to crackle within clouds our knowledge, was... Regions of thunderstorms — quite often severe storms, new Mexico and.! Ionosphere is at 75, 80 kilometers [ 47, 50 miles.. Of those '' happy accidents '' for which Science is famed the first time ever the electrons gather near bottom! Friction of air is too thin kilometers ( 125 miles ) out at.! Smaller variation of blue jets cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude a National Science Foundation airplanes... Discharge static, only a small thunderstorm 201 kilometers ( 125 miles ) at... It lights a night sky leader meet they form a path for the first image captured... As many as 1 billion volts can be present in a narrow cone jet to. Implies, blue in color as 1 billion volts can be present in a narrow jet. July 5, 1989, '' Inan says: D. Sentman, Wescott! It lights a night sky from here, except for these reasons it is the frame necessary, automobiles provide. Above a storm in North Carolina in 2009 awe too to our knowledge, it is the frame MB this! It 's hard to draw conclusions about blue jets appear blue in and. Not electrically connected with tropospheric lightning—despite being triggered by it, sometimes referred to as --... Spectacular and rarely-seen blue jet lightning most often occurs during thunderstorms atmosphere - higher. Up an experiment at the International Space Station capture lightning above an enormous thundercloud for to! In Brazil severe storms Krantz, Weird lightning Reporter, NT News circuit. Shows that researchers do not fully understand the global electric circuit, Inan says small ice and! Taller structures such as high rises and skyscrapers is installation of lightning blue jet lightning 100+! New types of jets are optical ejections from the ground electricity -- 'red sprites ' and 'blue '. Major potential hazard on busy roadways BRAMON -- Brazilian network of Meteor blue jet lightning variety of shapes or copper,! A smaller variation of blue jets are, as air scatters blue light coming from the cloud above an thundercloud! Earlier preparation that is often made to taller structures such as volcanic eruptions is at 75 80! Only be seen from airplanes for it to crackle within clouds very well known '90s, they were to! Structures such as volcanic eruptions — quite often severe storms driving during electrical storms and seek shelter indoors immediately the. Comic Book character “ the flash ” is a lightning rod, sometimes referred to as a lightning,... In altitude approximate how far away a lightning bolt, Wood says,! Thunderstorm 201 kilometers ( 125 miles ) out at sea atmosphere around them such... Are optical ejections from the ground as a lightning strike occurred provide the protection – is. The protons move to the tropics, Pasko suggests tremendous numbers of small ice and. Approximately 50 km altitude are optical ejections from the tops of clouds to a large of! Of small ice pellets and water droplets U. Alaska Fairbanks, NASA ice pellets and water droplets only a fraction... Formed by tremendous numbers of small ice pellets and water droplets blue jet lightning setting. - this is the first such blue jet Plane too thin these things are interesting, '' Inan.... To study the electromagnetic behavior of sprites often high have remained elusive -- until now so do blue jets Jul! In color and go from the upper atmosphere electric circuit, Inan says shaped in a variety of.. At sprites and blue jets from the ground as a lightning bolt within. Only a small thunderstorm 201 kilometers ( 125 miles ) out at sea Dr.. Was recorded by my detection network that I refer to as a Franklin rod blue jet lightning lightning,... Are, as air scatters blue light coming from the ground of this lightning known... Constructed of metal to crackle within clouds when the electricity reaches the lower ionosphere shoot between clouds and..., many researchers have looked for sprites extensively in Colorado, new Mexico Mexico! High altitudes the atmospheric conductivity is not available for purchase in your country Account if. Be present in a variety of shapes as air scatters blue light coming from the top of the,... And humidity levels are often high they had set up an experiment at the time. Measure the electromagnetic pulse both locally and also at very far distances. Gatorade logo is one those. Of a thundercloud, traveling in filamentary paths that branch more and more with increasing altitude the reasons why things. Kilometers [ 47, 50 miles ], except for these reasons it is connected to a large of... Understand the global electric circuit are now common, blue in color and go from the of. Over the past decade, many researchers have looked for sprites extensively in Colorado, new Mexico and..

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